The Disease

FMD is a devastating disease of live stock. All species of cloven footed animals (especially cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and pigs) are susceptible and the disease is extremely contagious. Various means and modes of transmission and spread contribute to the wide spread endemics through out the country.

Seven Sero types namely O, A, Asia-1, C, SAT-1, SAT-2, SAT-3 that are prevalent in the globe do not offer cross protection. In our country, the most predominant FMD serotype is O followed by A and Asia-1. Fortunately, type C is not reported for the past 10 years. Further, considerable antigenic variation and emergence of mutants with in the serotypes complicate the vaccination and control programs.

However, the late some of the countries that never reported FMD from their territory started recording a few cases especially Japan. United Kingdom which was free from the disease reported massive outbreaks in 2001 resulting in huge financial losses. Since 1998, a few of the nations in Europe reported FMD.

India followed the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) example and guidelines in totality in controlling and eradicating Rinderpest (RP). The OIE notified India’s declaration of provisional freedom from RP w.e.f March 1998. Some of the nations that initiated national control policy on Foot and Mouth Disease are Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina.

As a responsible partner in the control of this economically important disease, we at Biovet initiated a specific module highlighting the importance of vaccination, do’s and dont’s of vaccination process etc., in a booklet form for the benefit of veterinarians and live stock farmers.

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