Clinical Signs

  • Foot-and-mouth disease is characterized by fever and vesicles (blisters) which progress to erosions in the mouth, nares, muzzle, feet, or teats. Typical clinical signs include depression, anorexia, excessive salivation, serous nasal discharge, decreased milk production, lameness, and reluctance to move.
  • Abortion may occur in pregnant animals due to high fever (FMDV does not cross the placenta).
  • Death in young animals is due to severe myocardial necrosis.
  • In cattle, oral lesions are common with vesicles on the tongue, dental pad, gums, soft palate, nostrils, or muzzle.
  • Hoof lesions are in the area of the coronary band and inter-digital space. In pigs, the hoof legions are usually severe with vesicles in the coronary band, heel, and interdigital space. Vesicles can also be seen on the snout. Oral lesions are not as common as in cattle and are usually less severe. Sheep and goats show very mild signs of fever, oral lesions and lameness.

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